Archive for September, 2011

Problems with Early Newspapers: Project for Part 1 & 2

Tuesday, September 27th, 2011

                Communication in the American colonies before the revolution was a hit or miss concept. It took days or weeks to get letters around and even then the news was lost to most people. Soon journals and newspapers would evolve into the form that most people would receive the news. In the early years of newsprint there were major problems that would arise with little to no viable way around them. In looking at early communication in the form of newspapers in early colonial America there are three distinct problems that have been identified. These three problems are: cost (with its own set of problems), availability and literacy rates of early colonists.

                Taking on the first problem, cost. There are separate sub issues to deal with. Not only the cost of the paper, there was also the cost of manufacture, start-up, equipment and finding people to run and distribute the papers. In an era where many people were struggling to live, it was difficult to find the money to buy anything that was not life essential. Second, the cost of manufacture was prohibitive to the publication of widespread newspapers. Many of the early newspapers were only one to three pages and had only local distribution; it was not until the advent of the postal system that newspapers could be efficiently carried to remote locations and made available to the masses. Next, the start-up cost was a stumbling block to many. Equipment, type-set and paper did not come cheap, many early printers found themselves heavily in debt and out of business in short order. Finally, finding the trained people to run the equipment, use the type-set and page layout was a scarce commodity. It is difficult to find someone with experience in a new field since there were limited printers in the beginning.

                The second problem stems from availability. Going hand in hand with the first issue of cost, many early newspapers were not available outside of local towns. The high cost of paper made for select topics and short print runs for many of the early papers, keeping circulation low, the important news of the day might only reach a fraction of the population in the biggest towns and little to no one in the country, or at least not for days following the print.

                The final problem was literacy rates in early American colonies. The problem was not in the cities and larger towns where literacy rates, at least for males, could reach seventy percent. This is not what is usually thought of during the colonial times; however in the American colonies the average male could read and write. The problem came from the people living in the country. Most farmers could not read or write and as such had little use for newspapers unless they had somewhere to go and have the paper read to them.

                In conclusion, the problems and complications of early colonial American newspapers as a form of communication can be separated into three areas. Cost, availability and the amount of people who could read the newspaper all factored into the problems of communication from early newspapers; problems not solved until widespread literacy, the postal service and more efficient ways of publication.

 

Bibliography

Hudson, Frederic. Journalism in the United States from 1690-1872. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1873.

Marshall, Nicholas. “The Rural Newspaper and the Circulation of Information and Culture in New York         and the Antebellum North” New York History. Volume 58 Issue 2 (Spring 2007): 133-151.

Mott, Frank L. American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690-1940. New York: MacMillion, 1950.

Rutland, Robert A. Newsmongers: Journalism in the Life of the Nation 1690-1972. New York: Dial Press, 1973.

Sloan, William D. The Early American Press 1690-1783. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Patent battles

Thursday, September 22nd, 2011

Maybe the battle between Bell and Grey for patent on the telephone could be considered unimportant and boring. Why is it important and who cares which one gets credit. It is always interesting to see how many people can be working on the same idea and it always seems to come down to a matter of hours or minutes as to who filed the patent. Like the telephone, the same battle with patent rights plagued Tesla.

Tesla and Marconi fought for the right to be called the inventor of radio, it was not until after the death of both men the government reversed its decision and granted Tesla the patent for wireless radio communication. Tesla was not concerned about patent rights, he could have been a rich man with the development of AC current, backed by Westinghouse AC became the predominant form of transmitting electric over long distances; however Tesla sold his rights and his large amount of stock to save Westinghouse from going bankrupt. Tesla died broke. By selling his rights Tesla allowed for the further development of wireless communication which developed competition.

Patents can be called both a blessing and a curse, yes they suppress competition and allow for price fixing; however they do not stop people from improving those inventions. Still I do not believe the patent system works the way it should.

Project Part 1 & 2

Tuesday, September 20th, 2011

The subject for my portion of the timeline is the rise of modern journalism. For the first project I thought it would be interesting to look into the problems and complications of early American newspapers to convey information. The problems are simple ones really. The lack of skilled printers and the technology during the early American experiment and the amount of people who could afford the papers versus those who could even read.

The earliest example of what could be called a newspaper was printed in Boston by Richard Price. On September 25, 1690 the “Publicl Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick” became the first example of a newspaper. Only consisting of three printed pages. Another early example would come about thirty years later when James Franklin (brother to Ben) would introduce “The New England Courent” in August of 1721.

Update on project

Tuesday, September 20th, 2011

For the first project I wanted to study the complications and processes of communication with early American newspapers. I posted to the blog on Thursday after class however I notice it never made it up. It will interesting to study the formation of and growth of America’s first newspapers.